Web Design & Development Guide
Web hosting service
A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is
a collection of
pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one
server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN.
A Web page is a document, typically written in
HTML, that is almost always accessible via HTTP, a protocol
that transfers information from the
to display in the user's
All publicly accessible websites are seen collectively as constituting the "World
The pages of websites can usually be accessed from a common root URL called
the homepage, and usually reside on the same physical server. The URLs of the
pages organize them into a hierarchy, although the hyperlinks between them
control how the reader perceives the overall structure and how the traffic flows between the different parts of the sites.
Some websites require a
subscription to access some or all of their content. Examples of subscription
sites include many business sites, parts of many news sites, academic journal
sites, gaming sites, message boards, Web-based e-mail, services, social
networking website, and sites providing real-time stock market data.
As of March 2007 there are over 8 billion web pages in total on the World
Wide Web. - Source
The first on-line website appeared in
1991. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to
anyone. A copy of the original first Web page, created by Tim Berners-Lee, is kept
Organized by function a website may be
- a personal website
- a business website
- a government website or
- a non-government website
non-profit organization website or blog
It could be the work of an individual, a business or other organization and
is typically dedicated to some particular topic or purpose. Any website can
contain a hyperlink to any other website, so the distinction between individual
sites, as perceived by the user, may sometimes be blurred.
Websites are written in, or dynamically converted to, HTML (Hyper Text Markup
Language) and are accessed using a software program called a Web browser, also
known as a HTTP client. Web pages can be viewed or otherwise accessed from a
range of computer-based and Internet-enabled devices of various sizes, including
desktop computers, laptop computers, PDAs and cell phones.
A website is
hosted on a
computer system known as a
also called an HTTP server, and these terms can also refer to the
software that runs on these system and that retrieves and delivers the Web pages
in response to requests from the website users. Apache is the most commonly used
Web server software (according to Netcraft statistics) and Microsoft's Internet
Information Server (IIS) is also commonly used.
A static website is one that has web pages stored on the server in the same
form as the user will view them. They are edited using three broad categories of
- Text editors. such as Notepad or TextEdit, where the HTML is manipulated directly within the editor program
editors. such as
Microsoft FrontPage and
Macromedia Dreamweaver, where the site is edited using a
GUI interface and
the underlying HTML is generated automatically by the editor software
- Template-based editors, such as Rapidweaver and iWeb, which allow users
to quickly create and upload websites to a web server without having to know
anything about HTML, as they just pick a suitable template from a palette
and add pictures and text to it in a DTP-like fashion without ever having to
see any HTML code.
A dynamic website is one that has frequently changing information or collates
information on the hop each time a page is requested. For example, it would call
various bits of information from a database and put them together in a
pre-defined format to present the reader with a coherent page. It interacts with
users in a variety of ways including by reading
cookies recognizing users' previous history, session variables, server side
variables etc., or by using direct interaction (form elements, mouseovers, etc.). A site can display the current state of a dialogue between users, monitor
a changing situation, or provide information in some way personalized to the
requirements of the individual user.
There is a wide range of software systems, such as Java Server Pages (JSP),
the PHP and Perl programming languages, Active Server Pages (ASP) and ColdFusion
(CFM) that are available to generate dynamic Web systems and dynamic sites.
Sites may also include content that is retrieved from one or more databases or
by using XML-based
technologies such as
Static content may also be dynamically generated either periodically, or if
certain conditions for regeneration occur (cached) in order to avoid the
performance loss of initiating the dynamic engine on a per-user or
Plugins are available to expand the features and abilities of Web browsers,
which use them to show active content, such as Flash, Shockwave or applets
written in Java. Dynamic HTML also provides for user interactivity and realtime
element updating within Web pages (i.e., pages don't have to be loaded or
Websites as businesses
Turning a website into an income source is a common practice for
web-developers and website owners. There are several methods for creating a
website business which fall into two broad categories.
1. Online Information Businesses
Some websites offer no products at all but provide
free information with income coming from clicks the visitors make on
advertisements (see contextual ads). There is a wide range of monetizing used on
such sites and the sites themselves are actively traded and bought and sold as
Guides have been published which explain how to create such a business. See
links at bottom of page.
2. Online Shop Businesses
While most business websites serve as a shop window for
brick and mortar businesses it is increasingly the case that some websites are
businesses in their own right. These websites are fully self-contained
businesses entities offering, for example, immediate downloads of retail
software on payment of the product's price via their shopping cart.
Guides have been published which explain how to create such a business. See
links at bottom of page.
As noted above, there are several different spellings for this term. Although
"website" and "web site" are commonly used (the former especially in
British English), the Associated Press Stylebook, Reuters, Microsoft, academia,
book publishing, The Chicago Manual of Style, and dictionaries such as
Merriam-Webster use the two-word, initially capitalized spelling Web site.
This is because "Web" is not a general term but a shortened form of World
Wide Web. As with many newly created terms, it may take some time before a
common spelling is finalized. (This controversy also applies to derivative terms
such as "Web master"/"webmaster" and "Web cam"/"webcam").
Canadian Oxford Dictionary and the Canadian Press Stylebook list "website" and
"web page" as the preferred spellings. The Oxford English Dictionary began using "website" as its standardized form in
Bill Walsh, the copy chief of The Washington Post's national desk,
and one of American English’s foremost grammarians, argues for the two-word
spelling with capital W in his books Lapsing into a Comma and The
Elephants of Style, and on his site, the Slot.
Way to Upload website and earn on click basis
Here are some guidelines to make a website for earning pupose.
Types of websites
There are many varieties of Web sites, each specializing in a particular type
of content or use, and they may be arbitrarily classified in any number of ways.
A few such classifications might include:
- Affiliate: enabled portal that renders not only its custom CMS but also
syndicated content from other content providers for an agreed fee. There are
usually three relationship tiers. Affiliate Agencies (e.g., Commission
Junction), Advertisers (e.g., Ebay) and consumer (e.g., Yahoo).
Archive site: used to preserve valuable electronic content threatened with
extinction. Two examples are: Internet Archive, which since 1996 has
preserved billions of old (and new) Web pages; and Google Groups, which in
early 2005 was archiving over 845,000,000 messages posted to Usenet
Blog (or web log) site: sites generally used to post online diaries which
may include discussion forums (e.g., blogger, Xanga).
Corporate website: used to provide background information about a business,
organization, or service.
Commerce site or eCommerce site: for purchasing goods, such as Amazon.com.
Community site: a site where persons with similar interests communicate with
each other, usually by chat or message boards, such as MySpace.
Database site: a site whose main use is the search and display of a specific
database's content such as the Internet Movie Database or the Political
Development site: a site whose purpose is to provide information and
resources related to software development, Web design and the like.
Directory site: a site that contains varied contents which are divided into
categories and subcategories, such as Yahoo! directory, Google directory and
Open Directory Project.
Download site: strictly used for downloading electronic content, such as
software, game demos or computer wallpaper.
Employment site: allows employers to post job requirements for a position or
positions and prospective employees to fill an application.
Erotica websites: shows sexual videos and images.
Game site: a site that is itself a game or "playground" where many people
come to play, such as MSN Games ,Pogo.com and Newgrounds.com.
Geodomain refers to domain names that are the same as those of geographic
entities, such as cities and countries. For example, Richmond.com is the
geodomain for Richmond, Virginia.
Gripe site: a site devoted to the critique of a person, place, corporation,
government, or institution.
Humor site: satirizes, parodies or otherwise exists solely to amuse.
Information site: contains content that is intended to inform visitors, but
not necessarily for commercial purposes, such as: RateMyProfessors.com, Free
Internet Lexicon and Encyclopedia. Most government, educational and
non-profit institutions have an informational site.
Java applet site: contains software to run over the Web as a Web
Mirror (computing) site: A complete reproduction of a website.
News site: similar to an information site, but dedicated to dispensing news
Personal homepage: run by an individual or a small group (such as a family)
that contains information or any content that the individual wishes to
Phish site: a website created to fraudulently acquire sensitive information,
such as passwords and credit card details, by masquerading as a trustworthy
person or business (such as Social Security Administration, PayPal) in an
electronic communication. (see Phishing).
Political site: A site on which people may voice political views.
Pornography (porn) site: a site that shows pornographic images and videos.
Rating site: A site on which people can praise or disparage what is featured
Review site: A site on which people can post reviews for products or
Search engine site: a site that provides general information and is intended
as a gateway or lookup for other sites. A pure example is Google, and the
most widely known extended type is Yahoo!.
Shock site: includes images or other material that is intended to be
offensive to most viewers (e.g. rotten.com).
Warez: a site filled with illegal downloads.
Web portal: a site that provides a starting point or a gateway to other
resources on the Internet or an intranet.
Wiki site: a site which users collaboratively edit (such as Wikipedia).
Some websites may be included in one or more of these categories. For
example, a business website may promote the business's products, but may also
host informative documents, such as white papers. There are also numerous
sub-categories to the ones listed above. For example, a porn site is a specific
type of eCommerce site or business site (that is, it is trying to sell
memberships for access to its site). A fan site may be a dedication from the
owner to a particular celebrity.
Websites are constrained by architectural limits (e.g., the computing power
dedicated to the website). Very large websites, such as Yahoo!, Microsoft, and
Google employ many servers and load balancing equipment such as Cisco Content
Services Switches to distribute visitor loads over multiple computers at multiple
In January of 2007,
Netcraft, an Internet monitoring company that has tracked Web growth since 1995,
reported that there were 106,875,138 Web sites with domain names and content on
them in 2007, compared to just 18,000 Web sites in August 1995.
Webby Awards are a set of awards presented to the world's "best" websites, a
concept pioneered by
Best of the Web in 1994.
Notes and references
Web development software
Web security exploits