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Referer spoofing

Web Design & Development Guide

Referer spoofing

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In computer security, referer spoofing or ref tar spoofing is the sending of incorrect referer information along with an HTTP request, with the aim of gaining unauthorized access to a web site.

Application

Some subscription sites, especially many pornographic paysites, utilize referer information to secure their materials: only browsers arriving from a small set of approved (login-) pages are given access; this facilitates the sharing of materials among a group of cooperating paysites. If attackers acquire knowledge of these approved referers (which is often trivial because many sites follow a common template), they can then gain free access to the materials.

Tools

Several software tools exist to facilitate referrer spoofing:

  • Proxomitron offeres the capability of referrer spoofing at http://proxomitron.info
  • Here is an open source project at http://livehttpheaders.mozdev.org/ where there is a feature called "replay headers".
  • The Mozilla Firefox extension refspoof allows to use a custom referer URL for any site one visits, and provides a mechanism to manage a bookmark list of such referer/site pairs.
  • A similar Mozilla Firefox extension is spooFXplorer (not compatible with the most recent version of Firefox).
  • QuickSpoof and Spooph provide the same functionality for the Internet Explorer browser.
  • SuperMegaSpoof is a Windows application that supports both browsers and allows users to exchange and rate referer spoofs; it displays advertisements while it is running.
  • SpoofForge is similar to SuperMegaSpoof with the exception that spoofs are displayed on a web site, and so there is no software to install.

External links


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Browser exploit
Cross-site cooking
Cross-site request forgery
Cross-site scripting
Cross-zone scripting
Directory traversal
Evil twin (wireless networks)
HTTP response splitting
IDN homograph attack
Referer spoofing
Session fixation
Session poisoning
Website spoofing

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